Comparative efficacy of biofeedback interventions in predicting improvements in bilateral soccer shooting performance

Soumendra Saha, Srilekha Saha, Nurfarrah Ezzaty Binti Mohd Zahir, Foujia Huda


The beneficial impact of the differential biofeedback intervention technique on modification in autonomic competence, as well as the ultimate impact on bilateral shooting ability, were studied on young and competitive male soccer players.  A total of 45 young high-performing soccer players in the age range of 18 to 24 years were recruited. At first, the players were subjected to baseline evaluation of psychomotor (i.e., reaction time – RT), physiological (viz. resting heart-rate; VO2Max, electrical muscle potentiality, etc.), and psychobiological indices (such as skin conductance components – latency, amplitude and recovery time). Thereafter, they were equally categorized into: Control Group, Experimental Group I [who received skin conductance (Sc) biofeedback training], and Experimental Group II [who received electromyography (EMG) biofeedback intervention training]. Participants of the experimental groups were subjected to their respective interventions (Sc & EMG biofeedback intervention training), which were imparted for 24 sessions (15 mins/day; 2 days/week for 12 weeks). After six weeks of intervention, mid-term evaluation of all of the aforementioned parameters (assessed during baseline evaluation) was performed. Thereafter, intervention sessions continued following the identical protocol for six weeks. At the end of the 12th week, a post-intervention assessment on all of the psychological, psychomotor and psychobiological variables was carried out on all of the participants to verify the effect of training on dependent measures. Post-intervention analyses revealed improvements in physiological, psychobiological and performance parameters, which could be rationally attributed to the differential biofeedback therapeutic interventions introduced to the experimental groups. The outcome suggested that both interventions facilitated improvement in bilateral shooting ability, while in-depth analyses clarified that a higher extent of autonomic recovery emerged as the most significant factor facilitating shooting ability in the experimental groups. 


autonomic recovery; biofeedback; shooting ability

Full Text:



Beauchaine, T. (2001). Vagal tone, development, and Gray’s motivational theory: Toward an integrated model of autonomic nervous system functioning in psychopathology. Development and Psychopathology, 13, 183-214.

Dawson, M.E., Schell, A.M., and Filion, D.L. (2000). The Electrodermal System. New York, Cambridge University Press.

Dawson M. E, Schell A. M, Filion D. L. (2007). The electrodermal system. In: Cacioppo JT, Tassi- nary LG, Berntson GG, editors. Handbook of psychophysiology. Cambridge: University Press; 159–81.

Eubank, M.R. and Collins, D.J. (2000). Coping with pre-and in-event fluctuations in competitive state anxiety: a longitudinal approach. Journal of Sports Sciences, 18, 121–31.

Hugdahl, K. (1995). Psychophysiology: The Mind-Body Perspective. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.

Kellis, E., Katis, A. and Gissis, I. (2004). Knee biomechanics of the support leg in soccer kicks from three angles of approach. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise 36, 1017-1028.

Kellis, E., Katis, A. and Gissis, I. (2007). Biomechanical characteristics and determinants of instep soccer kick. Journal of Sports Science and Medicine, 6, 154-165.

Lazarus, R. (2000). How emotions influence performance in competitive sports. The Sport Psychologist, 14, 219–29.

Manolopoulos, E., Papadopoulos, C. and Kellis, E. (2006) Effects of combined strength and kick coordination training on soccer kick biomechanics in amateur players. Scandinavian Journal of Medicine and Science in Sports 16, 102-110.

McDonald, M. (2002) Relative timing of EMG profiles for novice and elite soccer players. In: Science and Football IV. Eds: Sprinks, W., Reilly, T. and Murphy, A. London: Taylor and Francis. 22- 26.

Milanovic , Z. , Sporis , G. , Trajkovic , N. , James , N. , & Samija , K. ( 2013 ) Eff ects of a 12-week SAQ training programme on agility with and without the ball among young soccer players. Journal of Sports Science and Medicine, 12 (1), 97 - 103.

Orchard, J., Walt, S., McIntosh, A. and Garlick, D. (2002) Muscle activity during the drop punt kick. In: Science and Football IV. Eds: Sprinks, W., Reilly, T. and Murphy, A. London: Taylor and Francis. 32-43.

Oxyzoglou, N., Kanioglou, A., & Ore, G. (2009). Velocity, agility, and flexibility performance after handball training versus physical education program for pre-adolescent children. Perceptual & Motor Skills, 108 (3), 873 - 877.

Saha S., Mukhopadhyay Pritha, Chattopadhyay P. K., Biswas D., and Saha Srilekha (2005). Arousal modulation as predictor of achievement motivation in high soccer performers. Reading in Sports Psychology. Jitendra Mohon and Meena Sehgal (Eds.) Friends Publications, India, 116-146.

Saha, Srilekha; Saha, S and Chattopadhyay, P. K. (2013b). Effect of muscle relaxation training as a function of improvement in attentiveness in children, Procedia Social and Behavioral Sciences. 91, 606 -613.

Saha, S., Saha, Srilekha,, Chowdhury, D., Fahim N. A. & Salah Uddin M. (2012). In search of predictors for reaction ability related to high performance in Cricket. Soc Sci Int. 28(1):1–18.

Saha, S., Saha, Srilekha; Chowdhury, D.; Fahim N. A.; Salah Uddin M. & Tajul A.M (2014c). Differential Psychobiological Pathways Explaining Agile Reactions in World-class and Mediocre Cricket Players. Health & Environment Journal, 5 (1), 83 – 97.

Saha, S., Saha, Srilekha; Chowdhury, D.; Fahim N. A. & Salah Uddin M. (2012a). In search of predictors for reaction ability related to high performance in Cricket. Soc Sci Int; 28(1):1–18.

Saha Srilekha, Saha, S., Krasilschikov O., Ismail, M. S. (2013c).Cognitive-emotional predictors of anticipation and reaction ability as mediator for performance excellence in south-asian athletes, Procedia Social and Behavioral Sciences. 91, – 624 -631.

Saha, S., Saha, Srilekha, Mazlan, M.A.B.M. and Arriffin, M.I.B.M (2013a). Effect of emotional regulation on performance of soccer skills, Procedia Social and Behavioral Sciences; 91: 594-605.

Saha Srilekha, Saha, S., Zahir, N. E. B. M. (in press). Significance of Spontaneous Fluctuation in Sport Psychobiology. International Medical Journal.

Saha Srilekha, Saha, S., Zahir, N. E. B. M., Huda, F. (Accepted). Enhanced Motor Ability, Coordination and Psychobiological Competence in Predicting High Soccer Performance. International Medical Journal.

Sekulic , D. , Spasic , M. , Mirkov , D. , Cavar , M. , & Sattler , T. ( 2013). Gender-specific influences of balance, speed, and power on agility performance . Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research, 27 (3), 802 - 811. DOI: 10.1519/JSC.0b013e31825c2cb0.

Weineck, J. (1997) Fußballtraining. Teil 1: Konditionstraining des Fussballspielers. Perimed: Spitta Verlag. (In German).