Visual anticipation time differences between athletes in open and closed skills sports

Rokiah Haji Omar, Kuan Yau Meng, Victor Feizal Knight, Faudziah Abd Manan, Mohd Nizar Ahmad Padri


The ability to anticipation accurately and consistently plays a vital role to excel in sports performance. The present study was designed to determine the differences of visual anticipation time between dynamic and static sports. A total of 95 junior athletes, aged 13 to 16 years old (=14.84±1.04 years) from Bukit Jalil Sports School participated in the study. Participants were distributed to dynamic (n=47) and static (n=48) sports according to their sports participation. Visual anticipation time was tested using Bassin Anticipation Timer in response to stimuli at the speed of 5, 10, and 15 mph, measuring absolute and variable error. Absolute error measured the accuracy of responses while variable error focused on the consistency of responses. The results of this investigation showed that in general dynamic sport are not superior over anticipation ability in relations to accuracy and consistency as compared to static sports across all speeds (p < 0.05). The evidence from this study suggested more emphasis on training related to eye and hand coordination would be imperative for dynamic sports athletes to enhance in on-field sports performance. This study could serve as a base for future studies focusing on visual and hand coordination related to speed as anticipation has been proven to be the key leading to superior performance and for talent identification purposes. Future research concentrating on elite athletes as well as focused sports group would provide further insights on anticipation ability of athletes.


anticipation ability, dynamic, sports, static, visual anticipation time

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